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[ CPUs/DSPs ]  
  • Overview:
    DSP overview, DSP lecture (
    BDTi processor/DSP info
    DSP families
    CPU Info Center (great microprocessors)
    CPU history list
    SPEC table (DiMarco)
    Choosing a DSP
    CPU und Chipset Guide, SIMD, Post-RISC Era
    Dynamic Scheduling/Pipelining/ILP (German)
    Signal Processing: Compression

    Concepts of parallelism:
    Real CPU/DSP implementations very often employ combinations of the following concepts to process/move information/data in parallel and keep units busy for maximum hardware utilization.

    determined at compile-time by compiler (often advantageous for systems with predictable behavior, e.g. fixed repetitive numerical algorithm on DSPs or vector computers)
    determined at run-time by CPU (often advantageous for systems with non-predictable behavior, e.g. general purpose processors for multi-threaded/process applications)

    overlapping execution of subsequent instructions, each instruction is in a different execution stage/phase within the pipeline, fixed cylce-count instruction set advantageous to avoid pipeline stalls, typically called "superpipeline" if stage number >7

    Vector instruction:
    single instruction for identical operation on multiple data elements in parallel (SIMD), multiple parallel units (per pipeline) in CPU

    Multi-function instruction:
    single instruction for non-identical operations on multiple data elements in parallel (not to be confused with VLIW, however sometimes also referred to as VLIW), multiple independent units (per pipeline) in CPU

    Very long/variable length instruction word ("VLIW"):
    grouping of multiple instructions to be executed by CPU in parallel (MIMD), "statically" determined at compile-time (compare with superscalar), multiple pipelines in CPU
    Fixed number ("length"):
    unused slots to be filled with NOPs by compiler
    Variable number ("length"):
    group of instructions encoded (e.g. via link-Bit) by compiler

    CPU executes multiple instructions in parallel, "dynamically" determined by CPU at run-time (compare with VLIW), multiple pipelines in CPU

    Instruction-level parallelism ("ILP"):
    CPU issues multiple instructions in one cycle ("multiple-issue"), multiple pipelines in CPU
    scheduling determined by compiler at compile-time ("VLIW")
    scheduling determined by CPU at run-time ("superscalar")

    Thread-level parallelism ("TLP"):
    execution of multiple threads by CPU in parallel ("simultaneous multi-threading"="SMT")

    Dynamic scheduling:
    CPU reorders instruction sequence at run-time

    Register renaming:
    by CPU at run-time to avoid write-after-read and read-after-write hazards with dynamic scheduling

    Branch prediction:
    speculative execution to avoid cycle overhead with branches/function calls
    at compile-time by compiler ("trace scheduling")
    at run-time by CPU

    Out-of-order execution:
    dynamic scheduling + register renaming + dynamic branch prediction

    DSP vs. CPU
    By definition, a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) is a specialized CPU, typically used for real-time signal processing purposes in embedded systems. Hereby, some features of general purpose CPUs like memory management (virtual memory, paging) or protection mechanisms (kernel/user modes or memory protection for operating system support) are left out in a DSP design. The main goal is to achive high numerical performance, low interrupt latencies (for real-time), deterministic behavior (for real-time) and low power consumption (for embedded). High data transfer rates by using multiple data and address busses (generalized Harvard architecture), specialized instruction sets for certain numerical algorithms (like the bit-reversed and circular addressing modes for FFT, MAC instructions and zero-overhead loop support for vector operations) and the use of on-chip directly addressable multiport SRAMs (sometimes instead of caches for deterministic behavior) are typical. DSPs are RISC designs (especially load-store architectures), employing pipelines with only a few stages (e.g. 3, in conjunction with on-chip interrupt+loop stacks) to achieve low latencies or pipelines with highly specialized stage sequences. The use of VLIW and other static (and therefore deterministic) parallelizing concepts (like SIMD and multifunction instructions) provides high data throughput und chip utilization. Very often DSPs support massive multiprocessing "farms" (with interprocessor communication ports) and have large multiported register files, 1-cycle MAC-ALUs, Bit manipulation units, powerful address generators (with own register sets), DMA units and multiple I/O units/busses. The number of supported data types is often very limited (e.g. only 32-Bit integer and float). Software (i.e., instruction set binary) compatibility is not important. Typical application fields range from audio/video (e.g. in synthesizers, graphics accelerators, MPEG/JPEG codecs) and telecommunication (e.g. in cell phone tranceiver base stations) to specialized coprocessor designs (e.g. "number crunching") and (where the DSP has its name from) processing of digital signals (e.g. in medical instruments, radar, scientific experimenal setups).

  • DEC PDP-8 chips (12-Bit):

    IM6100 ("CMOS-8", 6100 (CPU), 6101 (PIE), 6102/6103 (support chip, address extension ala PDP-8/E), by Intersil, CMOS, 1976, used in DECstation/VT78)

    HM6120 (6100 + 6102, 6121 I/O controller, 10 MHz, by Harris, 1981, used in DECmate-I, II, III and III+)

  • DEC PDP-11 chips (16-Bit, chips, performance):
    for instruction sets (base+, EIS, FIS, FPP, CIS) see PDP-11

    LSI-11 (by Western Digital, MCP-1600 chip set, 1611 data path + 1621 control + 2x1631 microcode ROM, EIS ("Extended Instruction Set") + FIS ("Floating point Instruction Set") ROM available (KEV11), base+, 1975, used on LSI-11 board and PDP-11/03),

    DCF-11 ("Fonz" or "F11", consisted of a 2-chip hybrid (21-15541 data path and 23-001C7 control chip), KTF-11 22-Bit MMU chip (21-15542), KEF-11 FPP floating point 2-chip hybrid option (23-002C7 and 23-203C7), alternative: FPF-11 floating point option (picture), CIS option as 2 chips, dual register set, base+, EIS, 1979, used in PDP-11/23, PDP-11/23+ and MicroPDP-11/23, DEC picture),

    DCT-11 ("T11", 1983, single-chip CPU (21-17311), for embedded applications, used in Falcon, RQDX and DEUNA, picture),

    DCJ-11 ("Jaws" or "J11" or "PDP-11/70 on a chip", by Harris, 2-chip hybrid (21-17679 and 21-17677), FPJ-11 FPU chip (21-21858), CMOS, 15 MHz and 18 MHz, 1984, DEC picture, picture, lacked the WCS (writeable control store) and CIS ("Commercial Instruction Set") options, 22-Bit MMU, separate I/D, dual register set, base+, EIS, FPP, used on LSI-11/73 board, MircoPDP-11/73, MicroPDP-11/83, PDP-11/84, new version with improved system layout ("cache-only") used in MicroPDP-11/93, PDP-11/94)

  • DEC VAX chips (32-Bit, clocks, interview, VAX processors):
    VAX systems see here
    Note: MOSAIC ("Motorola Oxide Self Aligned Implanted Circuits") by Motorola is a high-density bipolar chip technology

    VAX 700:
    780 (TTL modules, SID=0x01, 1977)
    750 (TTL gate-array modules, SID=0x02, 1980)
    730 (TTL modules, SID=0x03, 1982)

    VAX 8000:
    8600 (MOSAIC-I ECL gate-array modules, SID=0x04, 1984)
    8800 (MOSAIC-I ECL gate-array modules, SID=0x06, 1986)

    V-11 (single-chip prototype, SID=0x05, 1983?)

    MicroVAX I:
    MicroVAX I data path chip (NMOS 4 micron, rest of CPU was spread over lots of TTL chips, part of the KD32 (=KA610) MicroVAX I CPU ("DAP" data path module + "MCT" memory controller modul), SID=0x07, 1984)

    MicroVAX II (chip generation 1):
    MicroVAX-32 (78032=DC333 CPU + 78132=DC337 FPU, SID=0x08, ZMOS (4-type NMOS) 3.0 micron, 101k trans., 40 MHz master clock for 8-phase 200 nsec microcycle, used in MicroVAX II and VAXstation 2000 and VAX 8200, 1985)

    CVAX (chip generation 2)
    CVAX (78034 CPU + 78134 FPU, SID=0x0a, CMOS 2.0 micron, 44.44 MHz master clock for 4-phase 90 nsec microcycle, 134k trans., used in VAXstation 3500/3200 and VAXstation 3100 M30 and VAX 6000/200, 1987),
    CVAX+ (enhanced CVAX, SID=0x0a, CMOS 1.5 micron, 60 nsec, used in VAX 6000/300, 1988)
    SOC ("System On a Chip", DC222, SID=0x14, CMOS-3 1 micron, 35/40 nsec, for low cost VAX designs, used in VAX 4000/VLC, 1990)

    Rigel/Mariah (chip generation 3):
    Rigel (REX520 CPU + DC523 FPU, SID=0x0b, CMOS-2 1.5 micron, 28 nsec, first VAX vector instruction set, used in VAXstation 3100 M76 and VAX 4000/300 and VAX 6000/400, 1989),
    Mariah (Rigel variant, SID=0x12, CMOS-3 1.0 micron, 16 nsec, used in MicroVAX 3100 and VAXstation 4000/60 and VAX 6000/500, 1990)

    VAX 9000:
    9000 (MOSAIC-II ECL gate-arrays, SID=0x0e, 1990)

    NVAX (chip generation 4):
    NVAX (SID=0x13, CMOS-4 0.75 micron, 1.3M trans., 12/14/16 nsec, macropipelined, based on VAX 9000 (ECL gate arrays) microarchitecture, used in VAXstation 4000/90 and VAX 4000/400 and VAX 6000/600, paper, 1991),
    NVAX+ (NVAX for Alpha AXP Bus, SID=0x17, CMOS-4 0.75 micron, 11 nsec, used in VAX 7000/600 and VAX 10000/600, paper, 1992),
    NVAX5 ("NVAX++", SID=0x17, CMOS-5 0.5 micron, 7.5 nsec, used in VAX 7000/700 and VAX 10000/700, 1994)

  • AMD

    AM2900 family (Bit-slice processor chip set,
    introduction to the AM2900 family + Bit-slice design):

    AM2901, AM2902, AM2903, AM2904 (4-Bit slice processor, ALU + register file, first member: 2901 (1975, same as MMI 67901, Xilinx C2901))
    AM2909, AM2911 (microprogram controller (CCU + micro instruction register))
    AM2910 (microprogram sequencer, AM2910 info, Xilinx C2910A)
    AM2914, AM2913 (interrupt controller, AM2914 info, AM2913 info)
    AM2919, AM2918 (instruction register)
    AM2925 (programmable microcycle timing support)
    AM2930, AM2932 (main memory program control)
    AM2940, AM2942 (DMA support)
    AM2950 (bus I/O)

    IA32 compatible CPUs:

    Am386 (1989)
    Am486 (1993, info)
    Am5x86 ("80486DX5", 4-times overdrive 486, 0.35 micron, 1995, info, info2)

    AMD5K86 ("AMD-SSA/5", first K5 core, 1995, info)
    AMD-K5 (improved AMD5K86, 0.35 micron, 4.3M trans., 6-issue RISC microcore, out-of-order execution, 1996, info)

    NexGen Nx586 (0.44 micron, 3.5M trans., 4-issue RISC86 micro architecture, superscalar, out-of-order execution, 1995, announcement, info, info2)

    NexGen Nx686 (never released, announcement)
    AMD acquires NexGen
    AMD-K6 (based on Nx686 work, 0.25 micron, 8.8M trans., 6-issue RISC86, MMX (integer SIMD extensions), 1997, info, datasheet)
    AMD-K6-2 (0.25 micron, 9.3M trans., 6-issue RISC86, 3D-Now! (floating-point SIMD extension), 1998, info, datasheet)
    Mobile AMD-K6-2-P (info)
    AMD-K6-III (0.25 micron, 21.3M trans., TriLevel cache, 6-issue RISC86, info, datasheet)
    Mobile AMD-K6-III-P (info)
    Mobile AMD-K6-2+ (0.18 micron, PowerNow!, info)
    Mobile AMD-K6-III+ (0.18 micron, PowerNow!, info)

    K7 core:
    AMD Athlon
    ("AMD-K7", 0.25, 22M trans., 3-way x86 superscalar, 9-issue RISC86, DEC Alpha EV6 bus, Slot-A, 1999, info)

    K75 core:
    AMD Athlon (0.18 micron)

    Thunderbird core:
    AMD Athlon (copper, 0.18 micron, 37M trans., on-die L2 cache, Socket-A)
    AMD Duron ("Spitfire", socket A)
    Mobile AMD Duron

    Palomino core:
    Mobile AMD Athlon 4 (0.18 micron, 2001, info)
    AMD Athlon MP ("Mustang", for multi-processor systems)
    AMD Athlon XP (MMX/ISSE/3DNow!, QuantiSpeed 9-issue micro architecture, info)
    AMD Duron ("Morgan", info)
    Mobile AMD Duron

    X86-64: (IA32 compatible 64-Bit architecture, whitepaper,, info)

    AMD-K8 ("Hammer" architecture, scheduled for 2002)

  • MIPS ("Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages", but newer versions (MIPS III, ...) with interlocked pipeline, concept roots in Stanford MIPS project, one of the first RISC microprocessors, history, Linux MIPS-HOWTO, ISA=instruction set architecture, ASE=application specific extension):

    MIPS I
    R2000 + R2010 FPU (as COP1) + 4xR2020 WB (32-Bit RISC, 5-stage (6-stage FPU) pipeline, CMOS, 110k trans., 8.3/12.5/15 MHz, 1985/1987 FPU, imp=0),
    R3000 + R3010 FPU (enhanced R2000, CMOS, 115k trans., 20/25/33.3 MHz, 1988, imp=1),
    R2000A + R2010A FPU (R3000 core, 12.5/16.67 MHz, 1988, imp=1, pin compatible replacement for R2000),
    R3000A (enhanced R3000, 20/25/33.3/40 MHz, 1989, imp=2, paper),
    R3400 (integrated R3000 + R3010, by PACEMIPS),
    RISCore3000 family (microcontroller family by IDT, based on R3000A, 1994, only "E"-versions contain MMU, IDT list, paper):
    R3051, R3052, R3071, R3081 (incl. FPU), 3041
    RISCore 32300 family (microcontroller family, by IDT, based on R3000A, 2000, IDT list)
    R39xx (MIPS I + parts of MIPS II and III for embedded applications, Toshiba TX39 series, 1995, Philips PR31700 contains R3900 core)

    R6000 + R6010 FPU + B3110 MULT/DIV (connected to FPU) + R6020 system bus controller/WB (by BIT Technology, enhanced R3000, ECL, 90k trans., 66.7/80 MHz, 1990, imp=3, has nothing to do with IBM's RS/6000, different MMU than MIPS I),
    R6000A (imp=6)

    R4000 (first 64-Bit MIPS, 8-stage superpipelined, CMOS 0.7 micron, 1.35M trans., 50(100) MHz, PC=low cost/SC=secondary cache interface/MC=multiprocessing, 1991, imp=4, rev=0x00), R4400 (enhanced R4000, CMOS 0.6 micron, 2.3M trans., 250 MHz, 1992, imp=4, rev=0x40),
    low cost (non-superpipelined, 5-stage pipeline) versions:
    R4200 ("VRX", by NEC, CMOS 0.6 micron, 80 MHz, 1993, imp=0xa, FPU combined with IU, MIPS III architecture for embedded applications),
    R4300i (low cost version of R4200, 100 MHz, CMOS 0.35 micron, 1997, imp=0xb),
    newer NEC families: VR4100, VR4300
    R4600 ("Orion", by IDT, 100/133/150 MHz, 1993, imp=0x20, designed as low cost alternative to R4400, comparison with R4200),
    R4700 (successor of R4600, 175 MHz, 1995)

    R8000 + R8010 FPU (5-stage pipeline, superscalar, CMOS, 2.6M + 830k trans., 75/90 MHz, 1994, imp=0x10),
    R10000 (successor of R8000, "ANDES" out-of-order execution, CMOS 0.35 micron, 6.7M trans., 200/275 MHz, 1996, imp=0x9, die photo),
    R5000 (low cost version based on R10000, CMOS 0.32 micron, 3.6M trans., 250 MHz, 1996, optimized for single-precision FP),
    R5230, R5260,
    R12000 (improved R10000, CMOS 0.25 micron, 300/400 MHz, 1997),
    R14000 (improved R12000, by NEC, 500 MHz, 1999),
    NEC families: VR5000, VR10000

    MIPS V
    and MDMX ("MIPS digital media extension") (1996):
    both are SIMD extensions, actually no special CPU ever built, superseeded by MIPS64

    new ISA standards (for embedded applications)

    32-Bit, MIPS II + parts of MIPS IV + ..., also for 64-Bit CPUs in 32-Bit mode

    64-Bit extension of MIPS32, MIPS IV + MIPS V + ...
    compressed 16-Bit instructions for code reduction

    SIMD 3D-processing extensions to MIPS64

    custom designs

    Sony "Playstation" ("PS-X", custom R3000A CPU at 33.8688 MHz, 2 MB RAM, 1MB graphics RAM, 512 KB sound RAM, 3D graphics coprocessor, MPEG decoder, 1994 (Japan)/1995 (USA))
    "PS one" (Playstation successor, 2000)

    "Reality Immersion Engine"
    ("Reality Coprocessor" or "RCP", by NEC, coprocessor in Nintendo64, CMOS 0.35 micron, approx. 4M trans. incl. CPU, 1996, announcement, MIPS Nintendo64 history,
    Nintendo64 info
    , processor units in Nintendo64:
    CPU: custom version of R4300i, 93.75 MHz
    RCP: 64-Bit vector coprocessor, 62.5 MHz

    ICE ("Image Compression Engine", R4xxx-derived control logic unit + 128-Bit SIMD MDMX-style CPU, by SGI, 66 MHz, 1997, used in SGI O2 workstations as additional CPU to R5000/R10000 main CPU, accelerates JPEG and OpenGL imaging extensions, O2 uses UMA ("Unified Memory Architecture") with multi-ported main memory to CPU/ICE/IOE/MRE, O2 info)

    "emotion engine" (by Sony/Toshiba for PlayStation2, CMOS 0.25 micron, 13.5M trans., 296 MHz, 2000, units on chip:
    CPU: MIPS III CPU (2x64-Bit IU) + FPU (FMAC + FDIV, as COP1) + VU0 (4xFMAC + FDIV, 128-Bit SIMD, as COP2 or as separate VLIW processor)
    geometry processing: VU1 (4xFMAC + FDIV + EFU (FMAC + FDIV), 128-Bit SIMD, separate VLIW processor) + GIF (graphics interface)
    IPU: MPEG2 decoding accelerator
    DMA controller
    DRAM and I/O interface)

  • DEC/Compaq Alpha (AXP) 21x64: (64-Bit RISC successor of VAX, high clock rate ("short-tick design"), newer versions exploit static and dynamic instruction level parallelism (dynamic scheduling info) with out-of-order execution and simultaneous multi-threading ("SMT") (in contrast to static "EPIC" in IA64), superpipelined + superscalar, roots in DEC's PRISM design (has nothing to do with Apollo's PRISM), PALcode instructions for emulation and OS support, performance, Compaq documentation, Linux Alpha-HOWTO, not to be confused with 21xxx ADI SHARC):

    (7-stage INT/10-stage FP pipeline, dual-issue, 1992):
    21064 (0.75 micron, 1.7M trans., 150/166 MHz, info),

    21064(200 MHz)

    21066 (low cost EV4, documentation)

    21064A (improved EV4, 0.5 micron, 233/266/275/300 MHz, documentation)

    21066A (low cost EV4 core + EV45 FPU, 100/233 MHz)

    (7-stage INT/9-stage FP superpipeline, quad-issue, 1995):
    21164 (0.5 micron, 266/333MHz, documentation, info)

    21164A (0.35 micron, 9.6M trans., 366/433/500/612 MHz)

    21164PC (0.35 micron, 400/466/533 MHz, documentation)

    21164PC (improved PCA56, 0.25 micron, MVI ("motion video instructions"), 400/466/533 MHz, documentation)

    (MVI ("motion video instructions"), out-of-order execution, register renaming, 1998):
    21264 (0.35 micron, 15.2M trans., 466/500/525/575 MHz, info, info2, documentation, manual, Mircoprocessor Report 1996)

    21264A (0.28 micron, 15.2M trans., 600/667/700/730/750/833 MHz, info, manual)

    21264B (0.18 micron (aluminium), 15.2M trans., 833-1250 MHz, info, announcement, manual)

    21264C (copper)


    EV68DC (2001):
    21264E (140M trans., 1250 MHz)

    Intel acquires Alpha technology from Compaq (2001)

    EV69 (planned for 2002)
    (0.125 micron, SOI)

    EV7 (planned for 2002):

    21364A (0.125 micron)


    EV8 (planned for 2004, 8-way superscalar, 4-way simultaneous multi-threading ("SMT"))
    21464 (0.125 micron, SOI, copper, 250M trans.)

  • Apollo PRISM ("Parallel Reduced Instruction Set Machine" also called "88k", has nothing to do with DEC's PRISM or Motorola's 88000, used in Apollo DN10000)

  • HP PA-RISC ("Precision Architecture" RISC, influenced by Apollo PRISM, info, hardware database):

    HP-PA 1.0 (32-Bit):
    PA7000 PCX (used in HP9000-8xx/9xx)

    HP-PA 1.1a:
    PA7000 PCX-S

    HP-PA 1.1b:
    PA7100/PA7150 PCX-T

    HP-PA 1.1c:
    PA7100LC PCX-L

    HP-PA 1.1d:
    PA7200 PCX-T'

    HP-PA 1.1e:
    PA7300LC PCX-L2

    HP-PA 2.0 (64-Bit):
    PA8000 PCX-U (first 64-Bit PA-RISC)
    PA8200 PCX-V/U+
    PA8500 PCX-W
    PA8600 PCX-W+

  • Sun SPARC ("Scalable Processor Architecture" processor specification, register windows, concept roots in UC Berkeley RISC project 1984-1988, one of the first RISC microprocessors, floating point options, models+CPUs, hardware+CPUs, Linux SPARC-HOWTO):


    SPARC-V7 (32-Bit, 4-stage integer pipeline)

    SPARC-V8 (32-Bit, superscalar)

    SPARC-V9 (64-Bit)
    UltraSPARC II
    UltraSPARC III
    UltraSPARC IV


    Fujitsu SF9010IU = Fujitsu MB86900 (IU) + Fujitsu SF910FPC = Fujitsu MB86910 (FPC) + Weitek 1164 (MULTIPLY FPU) + Weitek 1165 (ALU FPU) + MMU (IU&FPC are gate-arrays, used in Sun-4/260)

    Fujitsu MB86901 = LSI L64801 + Weitek 3170 (FPU) (used in SPARCstation I)

    Fujitsu MB86902 = LSI L64911 (used in SPARCstation/IPC)

    Fujitsu MB86903 = Weitek W8701 (FPU on chip, used in SPARCstation/ELC and IPX)

    Ross RT601 = Cypress CY7C601 + TI 8847 or TI TMS390C601A or Ross RT602 = Cypress CY7C602 (FPU) + Ross RT605 = Cypress CY7C605 (MMU, SPARC reference MMU implementation) (used in SPARCstation 2)

    MicroSPARC = TI TMS390S10 (FPU + MMU on chip, 3-level MMU, used in SPARCstation 4/xx)

    MicroSPARC II = Fujitsu MB86904 (FPU + MMU on chip, used in SPARCstation 5/xx)

    TurboSPARC = Fujitsu MB86907

    SuperSPARC = TI TMX390Z50 (FPU + MMU on chip, 3-level MMU, used in SPARCstation 10/xx)

    HyperSPARC = Ross RT620 (IU + FPU) + RT625 (MMU) (used in SPARCstation 20/xx)

  • IBM

    ROMP ("032", RISC CPU, 1986)
    ancestor: IBM 801
    used in PC/RT

    ("Second Generation RISC" = "SRG", superscalar 32-Bit RISC architecture, 1990)
    ancestors: "AMERICA" (three-processor design) and later "RIOS"
    used in "RISC System/6000" = RS/6000 computers (has nothing to do with MIPS R6000)
    literature: Dipto Chakravarty, "POWER RISC System/6000", McGraw-Hill, 1994 (ISBN 0-07-011047-6)

    logical components: (central electronic complex = "CEC")
    BPU (branch execution unit, 2-stage pipeline)
    FXU (fixed-point execution unit, 4-stage pipeline)
    FPU (floating-point execution unit, 6-stage pipeline)
    ICU (instruction cache functional unit, combined with BPU)
    DCU (data cache functional unit)
    SCU (storage control functional unit, memory management)

    POWER implementations:
    * RS 1.0 (chipset: 1x SC, 1x FX, 1x FP, 1x IC/BP, 4x DC)
    * RS .9 (chipset: 1x SC, 1x FX, 1x FP, 1x IC/BP, 2x DC)
    * RSC

    CPU planar
    I/O planar
    standard I/O planar

    CPU designation:
    SRG-xxyy (xx=clock in MHz, yy=data cache in KB)

    PowerPC (CPU architecture based on POWER, 32-Bit and later on 64-Bit, used in newer RS/6000 systems, 1992)
    for details see Motorola section

    POWER2 (32-Bit, successor of POWER, used in high-end RS/6000 systems, 1993)
    two floating point units
    Multi-chip and single-chip ("P2SC") designs

    POWER3 (superscalar 64-Bit RISC CPU, based on PowerPC/POWER/POWER2 architecture, used in high-end RS/6000 systems, 1997)

    POWER4 (2001)
    info, info

    POWER5 (scheduled for 2004)
    info, info

    (scheduled for 2006)

  • Motorola


    68xx (8-Bit):
    6800 (8-Bit data/16-Bit addresses, 4000 trans., 1974, datasheet)
    6809, 6809E (improved 6800, 8/16-Bit data, 1 MHz, 1979, datasheet, disassembler)
    68A09E (1.5 MHz)
    68B09E (2 MHz)

    6800 based microcontrollers (microcontroller documentation):
    6802 (6800 compatible, datasheet), 6808 (6802 w/o onchip RAM)

    6801 family (superset of 6800):
    6801, 6803

    6805 family (6800 subset, low cost):
    6805, 68705 (EPROM version), 68HC05, 68HC705, 68HC805

    6811 family (superset of 6801):

    68xx 16-Bit microcontrollers (microcontroller documentation):
    6812 family (superset of 6811): 68HC12
    6816 family (superset of 6811): 68HC16

    68k (16/32-Bit):

    68000 (HMOS 4.0 micron, 68k trans., 1979),
    68008 (68000 with external 8-Bit data bus, 70k trans.)

    68010 (enhanced 68000 for virtual memory support, 68451/68851 MMU, 84k trans., 1983)

    68020 (CPU) + 68881/2 (FPU) + 68851 (MMU) (HCMOS 2.0 micron, 190k trans., full 32-Bit virtual memory, 1984)

    68030 (CPU+MMU) + 68881/2 (FPU) (CMOS 1.3 micron, 273k trans., 1987)

    68040 (CPU+MMU+FPU, CMOS 0.8 micron, 1.17M trans., 1990, info)

    68060 (superscalar, 2.5M trans.)

    683xx series (microcontroller, for embedded applications, 68000 core + 68010 and 68020 extensions)

    PowerPC (32-Bit RISC CPU family, based on the IBM "POWER" CPU, Apple/IBM/Motorola alliance, overview, old overview, AIX assembler):

    (first PowerPC, 32-Bit, CMOS 0.6 micron, 2.8M trans., 1992, 50-80 MHz)

    MPC602 (low cost, 66 MHz)

    MPC603 (low power, 1993, 66-80 MHz), MPC603e (1995, 100-200MHz), MPC603ev (1995, 160-240 MHz)

    MPC604 (1994, 100-180 MHz), MPC604e (0.35 micron, 5M trans., 1995, 166-223 MHz)

    MPC620 (64-Bit),

    MPC740, MPC750 ("G3", 32-Bit)

    MPC7400 ("G4", 32-Bit)

    ColdFire (MCF5xxx series, VL RISC, for embedded applications, Motorola info)

    Version 1: (68000 and ColdFire VL RISC ISA)

    Version 2: (ColdFire VL RISC ISA)
    MCF5206, MCF5206E

    Version 3:

    Version 4: (Harvard memory architecture, dual-issue superscalar)


    DSP56000 family (24-Bit fixed-point DSP, 56-Bit accumulators, 16-Bit address, info)
    56000, 56001 (1987)
    56002 (1992)
    56001A (1994, successor of 56001 and 56002)

    DSP96000 family (32-Bit floating-point DSP, 96-Bit accumulators, 32-Bit address, architecture derived from DSP56000 family)
    96001, 96002 (1988/1990, 750000 trans., info, disassembler)

    DSP56100 family (16-Bit fixed-point DSP, info)

    DSP56300 family (24-Bit fixed-point DSP, 24-Bit address, successor of DSP56000 family, info)
    DSP56301 (1995)

    DSP56600 family (16-Bit fixed-point DSP, 16-Bit version of 24-Bit DP56300 family, for low-power applications, info)

    DSP56800 family (16-Bit fixed-point DSP, info)

    DSP56850 family (enhanced DSP56800 family, info)

    StarCore DSPs (see StarCore, Motorola and Agere (formerly Lucent Technologies Microelectronics Group))

  • StarCore DSPs (Motorola and Agere Systems (formerly Lucent Technologies Microelectronics Group) alliance, 1998)

    SC140 core (high performance, info)

    SC110 core (power efficient)

  • Hitachi 63xx

    HD6309 (superset of Motorola 6809, 1 MHz)
    HD63B09 (2 MHz)
    HD63C09 (3 MHz)

    HD6301, HD6303 (based on Motorola 68xx microcontrollers, datasheet)

    HD64180Z (compatible with Zilog Z180)

  • MOS Technology (MOSTEK)/Rockwell

    6500 series
    6502 (8-Bit data/16-Bit addresses, 8.0 micron, 1 MHz, 1976, strongly influenced by Motorola 6800, archive, cross-development tools, info)

  • Intel (microprocessor history, evolution)

    Chip development:

    1968: silicon gate PMOS, Schottky TTL (bipolar)
    1971: NMOS
    1972: CMOS
    Intel article


    4-Bit, MCS-4, MCS-40
    4004 (CPU) + 4001 (ROM+I/O) + 4002 (RAM+O) + 4003 (shift register) + 4008/4009 (mem+I/O interface) (the first microprocessor, 4-Bit data /8&16-Bit instr./12-Bit PC, 4004: 2300 trans., 10.0 micron, 108 kHz, 1971, datasheets),
    4040 ("MCS-40 family", enhanced 4004, Japanese info)

    , MSC-8 (1972):
    8008 (8-Bit data/14-Bit PC, 10.0 micron, 3500 trans., 200 kHz, 1972, datasheet),

    , MCS-80 (1974):
    8080 (8-Bit data/16-Bit PC, 6.0 micron, 6000 trans., 1974, datasheet),
    8085 (enhanced 8080, 3.0 micron, 6500 trans., 1976),
    see Z80 (by Zilog, 1976)

    16-Bit, MCS-86 (1978):
    8086 (16-Bit data/20-Bit segmented (64KB) addresses, 3.0 micron, 29k trans., 8 MHz, 1978, registers
    8088 (8086 with 8-Bit external data bus, 3.0 micron, 29k trans., 1979, used 1981 in the first IBM PC (4.77 MHz, with 160 KB floppy) and later in PC/XT (with harddisk)),
    80186/80188 (enhanced 8086/8088 for embedded applications),
    8087 (FPU for 8086, "NPX" ("Numeric Processor Extension") 1980)

    i286=80286 + i287 FPU (16-Bit data/24-Bit addresses in PVAM ("Protected Virtual Address Mode"), HMOS 1.5 micron, 134k trans., 6 MHz, 8086 successor, 1982, history, used in IBM PC/AT)

    32-Bit, IA32 (1985):
    + i387 FPU (32-Bit data/32-Bit segmented + paged addresses in "Protected Mode", CMOS 1.5 micron, 275k trans., 80286 successor, 1985, prog. reference, icomp diagram, used in some IBM PS/2):
    386SX (only 16-Bit I/O, 16 MHz, 1988),
    386SLC (2x overdrive, IBM)

    (based on i386 + FPU, 5-stage pipeline, cache, 1989):
    486DX (CMOS 1.0 micron, 1.18M trans., 1989),
    486SX (w/o FPU),
    486SLC2 (386 pinout, 2x overdrive, IBM),
    486DX2 (2x overdrive, CMOS 0.8 micron, 1992),
    IntelDX4 ("486DX4", P24C, 4x overdrive, BiCMOS 0.6 micron, 1.6M trans., 1994)

    : (2-way superscalar, 1993, list)
    P5 (BiCMOS 0.8 micron, 3.1M trans., 60/66 MHz, 1993),
    P54C (BiCMOS 0.6 micron, 3.2M trans., 75/90/100 MHz, 1994),
    P54M (upgrade for P54C),
    P54CQS (BiCMOS 0.35 micron, 3.2M trans., 120 MHz),
    P54CS (BiCMOS 0.35 micron, 3.3M trans., 133/150/166/200 MHz, 1995),
    P5T (CMOS 0.8 micron, overdrive for P5, 120/133 MHz),
    P54T (for notebooks),
    P54CT (overdrive for P54C, CMOS 0.35 micron, 125/150/166 MHz),
    P55C (MMX (integer SIMD extension), CMOS 0.35 micron, 4.5M trans., 166/200/233/266 MHz),
    P54CTB (MMX overdrive for P54C, 0.35 micron, 4.5M trans., 125/150/166/180/200 MHz)

    Pentium Pro
    (P6, 0.35 micron, 5.5M trans., RISC core with CISC interpreter, out-of-order execution, 1995, info)

    Pentium II
    (0.35 micron, 7.5M trans., 300 MHz, improved Pentium Pro, ISSE (floating-point SIMD extension), 1997), (0.25 micron, 7.5M trans., 333 MHz, 1998)

    Pentium II Xeon (0.25 micron, 7.5M trans., 400 MHz, Pentium II with larger L1 cache, 1998)

    Celeron (Pentium II with smaller L1 cache)

    Pentium III (0.25 micron, 9.5M trans., 1999)

    Pentium III Xeon (0.25 micron, 9.9M trans., 550 MHz, 1999), (0.18 micron, 28.0M trans., 733 MHz, 1999)

    Mobile Pentium II (0.18 micron, 27.4M trans., 400 MHz, 1999)

    Pentium 4 (microarchitecture)

    Mobile Pentium III

    64-Bit, IA64 (2001): (VLIW derived static instruction level paralellism EPIC ("Explicit Parallel Instruction Computing") (e.g. in contrast to dynamic instruction level parallelism with out-of-order execution and simultaneous multi-threading in Alpha AXP))

    Itanium (info)



    8-Bit, MCS-48 family (1976):
    8048 (8-Bit, 6 MHz, 1976, datasheet, japanese info)
    8035 (ROMless 8048)
    8021 (low cost 8048 subset, 1977)
    8022 (8021 + A/D-converter, 1978)
    8049 (enhanced 8048, 11 MHz, 1978)
    8039 (ROMless 8049)
    8041 (Universal Peripheral Interface "UPI-41", based on 8048, datasheet)
    8042 (improved 8041)
    87xx (EPROM versions)

    8-Bit, MCS-51 family (1980):
    8051 (architecture info)
    8031 (ROMless 8051)
    8052 (enhanced 8051)
    8032 (ROMless 8052)
    87xx (EPROM versions)


    2920 (24-Bit instruction word, NMOS 5 micron, 400nsec, 1979, info)

  • Zilog


    Z80 core
    (enhanced 8080, 8/16-Bit data/address, dual register banks)
    Z80 (2.5MHz, 1976)
    Z80A (4MHz)
    Z80B (6MHz)
    Z80H (8MHz)

    Z8000 (16-Bit, 1979)

    Z80000 (32-Bit, 6-stage pipeline, 1983)
    Z80320 ("Z320", CMOS Z80000)

    Z280 (enhanced Z80, 16-Bit, MMU, 16MB physical address space, 1987)

    Z180 core
    (enhanced Z80, 8/16-Bit data/logical address, on-chip MMU, 1MB physical address space)
    Z80180 ("Z180", compatible with Hitachi HD64180Z, MMU info)
    Z80L183 (low voltage)

    S180 core
    (improved Z180)
    Z8L182 (low voltage)
    Z80195 (ROMless Z80185)

    eZ80 core
    (enhanced Z80, 16MB linear address space)
    eZ80190 ("eZ80 Webserver", 50MHz, 2000)

    Z380 core
    Z80380 ("Z380", 16/32-Bit)

  • Analog Devices


    ADSP-2100 DSP family:
    ADSP-2100 (16-bit fixed-point DSP, 1986, datasheet)
    ADSP-2100A (1988)

    ADSP-21csp01 (1995, improved ADSP-2100 architecture)

    ADSP-218x family

    ADSP-219x family
    2192 (2000)

    SHARC DSP family (ADSP-21xxx, "Super Harvard Architecture", 32/40-Bit floating point DSP, 32-Bit addresses, 48-Bit multifunction instructions, not to be confused with 21x64 DEC Alpha CPUs):
    21020 (first "SHARC", 1991, info, history, ADDS-21020-EZ-LAB)
    21060, 21062, 21061, 21065 (SHARC core + SRAM + DMA + ..., SRAM: 60: 4MBit/62: 2MBit/61: 1MBit/65: 544KBit, 1994, info, history, ADSP-2106X-EZLITE, ADDS-21065L-EZLITE)
    21160, 21161 ("Hammerhead", 2106x compatible, SIMD extensions, 64-Bit data busses, 1999, info, history, ADDS-21160M-EZLITE)

    TigerSHARC family (ADSP-TSxxx, "static superscalar", 8/16/32-Bit fixed-point and 32-Bit floating point, 128-Bit busses, 64-Bit external port, 2000, info):
    ADSP-TS001 (product brief)

  • Texas Instruments (TI, TI DSP home, user manuals)

    TMS320 DSP products:

    TMS320XX family (NMOS)
    TMS32010 (16-Bit fixed-point DSP, NMOS 2.7micron, 200nsec (390nsec MAC), 1982, info)
    TMS32020 (NMOS 2.4micron, 200nsec, 1985)

    TMS320C1X family (16-Bit fixed-point DSP, CMOS successor of TMS3201X)

    TMS320C2X family (16-Bit fixed-point DSP, CMOS successor of TMS3202X)
    TMS320C25 (1987)

    TMS320C3X family (32/40-Bit floating point & 24/32-Bit fixed-point DSP, info)
    TMS320C30 (1988)

    TMS320C4X family (32/40-Bit floating point and 32-Bit fixed-point DSP, successor of TMS320C3X, info)
    TMS320C40 (1990)

    TMS320C5X family (16-Bit fixed point DSP, successor of TMS320C2X)
    TMS320C50 (1990)

    TMS320C20X family (16-Bit fixed-point DSP, successor of TMS320C2X/5X)

    TMS320C2000 platform (for control applications)
    TMS320C24X DSP generation (16-Bit fixed-point DSP)
    TMS320C28X DSP generation (32-Bit fixed-point DSP)

    TMS320C5000 platform (power efficient)
    TMS320C54X DSP generation (16-Bit fixed-point DSP)
    TMS320C55X DSP generation (16-Bit fixed-point DSP, variable instruction length)

    TMS320C6000 platform (high performance, VLIW)
    TMS320C62X DSP generation (16-Bit fixed-point DSP, VLIW, info)
    TMS320C67X DSP generation (32/64-Bit floating point DSP, VLIW, info)
    TMS320C64X DSP generation (16-Bit fixed-point DSP, VLIW, TMS320C62X successor)

    TMS320C8X family (multi-processor CPU/DSP)

    other DSPs:

    TMS57002 ("DASP"="Digital Audio Signal Processor", 24-Bit fixed-point, two engines, I2S serial audio I/Os)

  • NEC

    NEC DSP history

    µPD7720 (16-Bit fixed-point DSP, NMOS 4.5micron, 250nsec cycle, 1981)
    µPD77230 (1986)

  • Fujitsu


    see SPARC chips


    MB8764 (CMOS 2.3micron, 100nsec, 1983)

  • AT&T / Bell Labs (now Lucent)


    DSP-1 (NMOS 4.5micron, 800nsec, 1980)

    DSP16 (16-Bit integer)
    DSP16A (1986)

    DSP32C (32-Bit floating-point, CMOS 1.5micron, 250nsec, 1985, info)

    DSP1600 core (16-Bit fixed-point, based on DSP16, info)
    DSP1610 (1990)
    DSP1615 (1995, info)
    DSP1620 (1996)

    DSP3200 core (32-Bit floating-point, based on DSP32C, info)
    DSP3210 (1991)

    DSP16000 core (info, info)
    DSP16210 (1997)

    see StarCore DSP (Motorola and Agere (formerly Lucent Technologies Microelectronics Group))

  • American Microsystems Inc. (AMI)


    S2811 (16-Bit integer "Signal Processing Peripheral" in conjunction with 6800 CPU, "V-groove"-MOS 4.5micron, 300nsec, 1978)
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Designed by K.M. Indlekofer. See disclaimer. Send comments about this site to Klaus Michael Indlekofer. Last updated 11/11/2002.